Assignment: Characteristics of bureaucracies. Assignment: Characteristics of bureaucracies. Discuss organizational cultures as transformational bureaucracies. I

Assignment: Characteristics of bureaucracies.

Assignment: Characteristics of bureaucracies.

Discuss organizational cultures as transformational bureaucracies.

Identify and discuss characteristics of bureaucracies.

Compare and contrast the terms “formal” and “substantive” theory.

Describe what distinguishes organizations as cultures from other paradigms, such as organizations as machines.

Explain the paradox of serving a bureaucracy and serving humans using an example from clinical practice.

Compare and contrast the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring and the revised Holographic Theory of Bureaucratic Caring.

Discuss the relevance of complexity science to theory development.

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Purpose of the Chapter

Discuss contemporary nursing culture
Share Dr. Ray’s theoretical views and vision of nursing
Discuss the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring
As grounded theory
As holographic theory
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Generation of Bureaucratic Caring Theory

Used three research approaches
Ethnography (hospital as a culture)
Phenomenology (meaning of caring in the life world)
Grounded theory method (the structure and process of caring within the complex organization)
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Theory Revisited

Ray revisited the theory and discovered the theory incorporated many concepts from the new sciences of complexity
The theory was revealed as holographic
The holographic model depicts the primacy of caring as spiritual-ethical and the other dimensions as equal, interfacing between the spiritual and ethical and the bureaucratic dimensions
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The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring

Invites us to view how a new model may facilitate understanding of how nursing can be practiced in modern health care (Ray, 2006)
Is a holistic theory with a practical purpose that facilitates our understanding of nursing practice in complex contemporary health-care environments
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Dr. Ray Believes

Given the nature of nursing as expanded consciousness and theory as wakefulness,
Nurses need nursing theory to stimulate thinking and critique as they function in the complex world of nursing science, research, education, and practice
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Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Assignment: Characteristics of bureaucracies.

Holographic Theory

Holography means that the implicate order (the whole) and explicate order (the part) are interconnected that everything is a Holon, including humans, in the sense that everything is a whole in one context and a part in another-each part being in the whole and the whole being in the part
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The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring as a Holographic Theory

Holistic science (and art)

captures the idea that all systems, including health care systems, are living systems
both wholes and parts
depend on networks of relationships, information, choice and communication flow
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The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring as a Holographic Theory
Furthers the vision of nursing and organizations as complex, dynamic, relational, integral, informational, and emergent—open to sets of possibilities
Synchronicity of interacting parts and the whole
Everything interconnects
We are all creative manifestations of the oneness of the environment (context), moving in relationship, and continually transforming (emerging—growing and developing) (Thoma, 2003).
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The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring as a Holographic Theory

Provides a means for nurses and other professionals
to change
to realize the integral nature of the dynamic unity of the human and environment
Rather than continuing mechanistic approaches of prediction and control
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Contemporary Nursing Practice

Nursing occurs in organizations that are generally bureaucratic or systematic in nature
Bureaucracies are a valuable tool
Identify
Understand
Principles that undergird coordinated and relational organizational systems
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Organizational Culture

Paradigm for understanding organizations
Founded in Anthropology Assignment: Characteristics of bureaucracies.
Social constructions
Symbolically formed
Reproduced through interaction
Studied formally and informally
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Types of Organizational Cultures

Informal
Integration of codes of ethics and conduct
Commitment
Identity
Coherence
Formal
Power and authority
Political
Legal
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Work of Nursing Within the Organizational Cultures

Undervalued in terms of cost and worth
Currently evaluated in terms of patient safety and clinical nursing leadership
New interest in evaluating meaningfulness of work
Directly helping others
Creating products that help others (Cuilla, 2000)
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Work of Nursing

Traditional
Directly helping others through knowledgeable caring (Watson, 2005)
Contemporary
Directly helping others
Legal context
Economic context
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Call for the Reinvention of Work

Re-seeing the good of nursing
Incorporation of business principles and relational self-organization
Searching for meaning in the complexities of life and work
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Organizational Cultures as Transformational Bureaucracies

Transformation of nurses toward relational self-organization and creativity
Moving from invisibility to visibility
Identifying nurses caring work as
Having value
Expression of one’s soul
Spiritual-ethical caring
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Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Assignment: Characteristics of bureaucracies.

Characteristics of Bureaucracies
Eisenberg & Goodall (1993)

Division of labor
Hierarchy of offices
General set of performance rules
Separation of personal from professional
Employment viewed as a career
Equal treatment of employees or standards of fairness
Protection of dismissal by tenure
Personal selection based on technical and professional qualifications

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