Discussion Week 7 Subjective data information Discussion Week 7 Subjective data information Prostate Cancer topic a) On page 719 and 720 explain the normal/abno

Discussion Week 7 Subjective data information

Discussion Week 7 Subjective data information

Prostate Cancer topic

a) On page 719 and 720 explain the normal/abnormal findings of the prostate glandThe prostate has a heart shape with a palpable central groove. It measures 2.5 centimeters long by 4 centimeters wide, and it should not protrude more than 1 centimeters into the rectum. At palpation, the prostate feels smooth. Its consistency is elastic and rubbery, and it’s slightly movable; it is not tender at palpation. Abnormal findings include atrophy or enlargement gland, and it may feel flat with no grooves or nodular. If The consistency is hard or boggy, soft, fluctuant, it will indicate abnormal findings, as well as if it’s not mobile or if it feels tender or swollen (Jarvis, 2020).b) Write everything you know about prostate cancer: assessment, prevention, and teaching strategiesPart of the reproductive system in a male is the prostate, and when cancer starts in the prostate, it is called prostate cancer, in which the cells grow out of control (CDC, 2020).

According to Jarvis 2020, when assessing a patient for prostate cancer is vital to find out if the patient has any symptoms. Ask for urinary frequency, nocturia, blood in the urine (hematuria), any problem when starting or maintaining urine stream (hesitancy), burning, or pain on urination. Also, determine if the patient is having consistently lower back pain or pain in the pelvis or tights.At palpation in malignant neoplasm, asymmetry will be felt, and the consistency will change as well. If multiple hard noodles invade the normal tissue, the entire prostate gland feels stone-hard and fixed, and the median sulcus is obliterated (Jarvis, 2020).According to Mayo, 2020 there’s no sure way to prevent prostate cancer. There is not a Study that definitively proves whether something prevents prostate cancer. Generally, physicians recommend that men with prostate cancer risk make choices that benefit their overall health if they’re interested in prostate cancer prevention. Choices include choosing a healthy diet, preferable a low-fat diet, increasing the number of fruits and vegetables per day, reducing the number of dairy products eating per day, and maintaining a healthy weight. Exercise most days of the week.Teaching strategies will include the explanation of the importance of prostate cancer screening. Even exist a contradiction if screening tests for prostate cancer work or not, some physicians still advocation the use of it. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and the digital rectal examination (DRE) are the primary tests used when screening for prostate cancer, and abnormal results will indicate that patient needs further investigation for a definitive diagnosis (Ilic, 2012). Discussion Week 7 Subjective data information

 

Colorectal cancer topic

a) What is the subjective data information on Colorectal cancer per Jarvis book on 715

Jarvis 2020 mentions that a regular bowel regimen should be obtained when collecting subjective data from the patient (by asking how often, the usual color, and if the consistency of the stool is hard or soft) and any change in bowel habits (like diarrhea or any loose stool and when it start). If the patient had experienced any rectal bleeding on toilet paper, in the water of the toilet bowl, or the stool and any rectal conditions as itching, hemorrhoids, fistula, or fissure are essential data to obtain. Ask the patient if he/she is taking any medications like laxatives, stool softeners, iron, and following a diet of high-fiber foods. Getting information on family medical history can contribute when collecting subjective data. b) Discuss statistics, assessment, lifetime risk, and deaths from colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled division of abnormal cells of the colon and rectum. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both genders. 8 of 100 cases represent colorectal cancer, being more common in men (1 in 23) than in women (1 in 25). Statistics for survival rate in five years period is 64%, meaning that out of 100 people diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 64 people have not died from this type of cancer. Researchers believe that the increase in survival is due to new treatments and the screening test demand, which helps the physician find cancer early when it may be more treatable. Also, screening tests may detect abnormal colorectal growth, allowing it to be removed before becoming into cancer. Colorectal cancer screening has been shown to reduce deaths from the disease.

Modifiable colorectal cancer includes being overweight or obese, physical inactivity, a particular type of diet like red meats, processed meats, Meats cooked at very high temperature, Low levels of vitamin D in blood, smoking, alcohol consumption (American Cancer Society, 2021).

Non-modifiable risk factors of colorectal cancer include being older than age 50, personal history of colorectal polyps or colorectal cancer, a personal history of inflammatory bowel disease, and family history colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyps, having inherited syndrome-like Lynch syndrome or familial adenomatous polyposis. Rare inherited syndromes linked to colorectal cancer, including Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and Mutyh-associated polyposis, are risk factors for this particular cancer. Also, African Americans have the highest mortality rate and incidence of colorectal cancer. The Jews of Eastern European descent have the highest record of cancer risk of any ethnic group globally. People with Diabetes mellitus type two Have an increased risk for colorectal cancer (American Cancer Society, 2021). Discussion Week 7 Subjective data information

It is expected that more than 50,000 deaths will occur during this year. The death rate has decreased for several years. One of the reasons is the screening test that allows for early-stage cancer detection, and very often, colorectal polyps are found and removed before they developed into cancer. The overall death rate has continued to drop, unlike the people younger than 55, for which the rate of colorectal cancer has increased by 1% per year (American Cancer Society, 2021).

While assessing a patient, at the inspection, observe the perineal region. Typically, the anus looks hairless and moist, with coarse, folded skin that is more pigmented than perinatal skin. No lesions should be present; the anal opening is tightly closed. The sacrococcygeal area may appear even and smooth. The skin may remain intact, and no protrusion should be present through the anal opening when instructing the patient to do the Valsalva maneuver.

At palpation, the patient should experience no pain but the feeling of needing to move the bowels. The sphincter should feel tight and then relaxed (Jarvis, 2020).Reference:

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