IBS is a symptom-based disease and results in altered bowel habits and abdominal pain.  While there are no specific biomarkers for

Respond on two different days who selected different treatments and factors than you, in the following ways:

Offer alternative common treatments for the disorders.

Share insight on how the factor you selected impacts the treatment of alterations of digestive function

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                                                 Irritable Bowel Syndrome

     IBS is a symptom-based disease and results in altered bowel habits and abdominal pain.  While there are no specific biomarkers for the disease, it is believed the gut immune response, altered gut microflora, brain-gut axis factor, gut neuroendocrine cell function factor, epigenetic, and genetic susceptibility factors all seem to play a role.  The diagnostic criteria would be a determination of at least three days per month in the last three months with two or more of these additional symptoms; symptoms improve with defecation, change in frequency of stool, change in the appearance of the stool, and onset greater than six months before diagnosis.  The syndrome may be diarrhea-predominant, constipation-predominant, or alterations between the two.  Symptoms include bloating, gas, and nausea.  Relief can typically occur upon defecation.  Treatment for IBS is fiber, laxatives, antispasmodics, antidiarrheals, low-dose anti-depressants, prosecretory drugs, serotonin antagonist or agonists, and analgesics.  Additionally, alternative therapies, including probiotics, yoga, acupuncture, and dietary interventions, may be prescribed (Huether & McCance, 2017).

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

     Like IBS, IBD also appears to be symptom based.  Symptoms are based on months, not days or weeks.  Recurrent episodes of diarrhea containing blood, mucous, and white cells alert the practitioner of a potential IBD diagnosis.  If the stool samples are negative for microbial pathogens, an IBD diagnosis is likely.  Exacerbations and remissions are a trait associated with IBD.  Gastrointestinal infection and smoking appear to be contributing factors.  IBD is broken down into two forms known as Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).  Crohn’s disease may occur anywhere in the GI tract from mouth to anus, while UC is limited to the colonic mucosa (Hammer & McPhee, 2019).  Treatment for IBD is aimed at reducing the inflammation.  Treatment may include anti-inflammatory drugs, immune system suppressors, antibiotics, pain relievers, anti-diarrheal, iron supplements, vitamin D, and calcium supplements (Mayo Clinic, 2019).

Different Patient Factors in IBS and IBD

     IBS is more prevalent in women by up to three times more likely.  North America has a 12% prevalence.  IBS sufferers are likely to have depression, reduced quality of life, and anxiety.  There does not appear to be a gender factor for IBD. However, there are environmental factors and genetic links (Hammer & McPhee, 2019).  Ashkenazi Jewish decent seem to have the highest hereditary factor (Mayo Clinic, 2019).


Hammer, G. D., & McPhee, S. J. (2019). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (8th  ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Mayo Clinic. (2019). Inflammatory bowel disease.  Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/inflammatory-bowel-disease/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353320


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